Several different spectroscopies and titrimetric techniques are employed to analyze the characteristics of water and waste-water.  Redox/pH and electrical conductivity/TDS are measured by pH and conductivity meters respectively, and suspended solids by filtration.  Various cations including Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag and Si, are measured using AAS at ppm concentrations, while some elements can be measured at sub-ppm levels.  Having an in-house XRF instrument enables analyses of a variety of elements of interest in the liquid phase, with a minimum effort on sample preparation and a swift analysis process.  Anions including Chloride, Carbonate and Bicarbonate are measured by titration techniques.  Sulphate content is also determined by turbidity principles and using spectrophotometry techniques.